Kangaroo Paws Hop Into California Gardens: The Cultivation Of
Anigozanthos In California
1991 Australian Plant Symposium University of California,
Randy Baldwin, Horticulturist and General Manager of San Marcos Growers.
Anigozanthos - The Genus
In some books the Anigozanthos are called "sword-like" or "iris-like" but in
fact they are a genus of plants in the Haemodoraceae, a family which is represented
by 13 genera, primarily restricted to the southern hemisphere (Lophiloa - a
small perennial bog plant is found in the eastern USA). There are 11 species
of Anigozanthos, or Kangaroo Paws as they are commonly called, that are restricted
to the southwest corner of Western Australia. They are rhizomatous herbaceous
perennials with flat strap-shaped leaves that are folded at the midrib. The
bird pollinated flowers are tubular and split lengthwise with the 6 lobed "claws"
being on the upper side of the flower. Often theses flowers are brilliantly
colored and are sometimes clothed by contrasting colored hairs.
Origins of The Name
The name Anigozanthos was assigned by French botanist Jacques de La Billardiere,
but it has several possible derivations. Several botanical texts list it as
a combination of the Greek words anoigo = to expand and anthos = flower which
is in reference to the the flower being split. Other books list the meaning
as the combination of the Greek words anisos = unequal and anthos = flower in
reference to the irregular corolla. There have been several spellings listed
for Anigozanthos including Anigozanthus and Anigosanthos. The genus has also
been variously placed in the Amaryllidaceae from time to time by horticultural
and botanical texts. Current nomenclature puts the Kangaroo Paws in the Haemodoraceae
and has the spelling of the genus as Anigozanthos. Two genera that are closely
related to Anigozanthos and grow in the same geographical area are Conostylis
and Macropidia. Anigozanthos differs from Conostylis in that it has zygormorphic
flowers and differs from Macropidia in its short staminal filaments and multiple
ovules per cell. Intergeneric crosses have been attempted between Macropidia
Introduction into Cultivation
Due to their unusual flower structure and striking coloration, the Kangaroo
Paws have become desirable to gardeners and horticulturists throughout the world.
This interest was first cultivated, as it often was with new and unusual plants,
by the English. Louden's Hortus Britanicus, A Catalog of a Plants Endemic, Cultivated
or Introduced to Britain, written in 1830, states that in 1808 A. manglesii
was introduced by Robert Mangles who had possibly received seed from his brothers
in New Holland (Aust). Anigozanthos rufus was introduced into cultivation in
1824. The Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening dates of the Botanical
Magazine Plates are listed as A. flavida 1808 (BM 1151), A. manglesii 1833 BR,
A. pulcherrimus (A. tyrianthinus) 1844 (BM 4507).
IN THE USA
The first reference of Anigozanthos in the US is made in the 1902 edition of
Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Horticulture which lists that "there
are 8-10 species of Anigozanthos from Australia for the greenhouse or as half-hardy
perennials." Bailey further states that these plants are cultivated in Europe
but unknown to the American trade. By the time the 1928 edition of Bailey's
was written, Anigozanthos had been upgraded to "Little Known in North America"
but both A. flavidus and A. manglesii were listed. Bailey's 1935 Hortus I
lists Anigozanthos as an "odd Australian perennial herb with thick rootstocks,
linear or sword shaped basal leaves and large red, purple, green or yellowish
flowers borne in one sided wooly racemes or spikes, the perianth tube very long",
but only A. manglesii is described. Peter Riedel's Plants for Extra-Tropical
Regions, which was published after his death in the 1950's, is an incredible
work that documents much of the plant introduction work that took place in California
around the turn of the 20th century. Although he states that there are few Kangaroo
Paws to be found in California, A. manglesii was offered in catalogs in 1911
and again in 1920. He lists Bureau of Plant Introduction numbers for A. manglesii
#81671 from 1930, A. flavida BPI #76931 - 1933, again 132069 - 1939 (possibly
the red form?). Reidel also states that A. humilis was offered in catalogs in
1920 as was A. viridis.
Further introductions of Kangaroo Paws were spurred on by interest in hybrids
being created in Australia, and recognition by gardeners and nurseries in California
that these plants were attractive and grew well in California gardens. Sunset's
Western Garden Book, the barometer of what is an accepted plant in the western
garden, lists Anigozanthos for the first time in their 1967 edition. Kangaroo
Paws are listed as a garden plant with "striking tubular flowers". The only
species commonly grown at this time was A. flavidus. As the Kangaroo Paws became
more popular, the search for the better and new cultivar began. For this the
gardening public relied on nurserymen who were importing plants and seeds from
Australia. Paul Hutchinson, at Tropic World in Escondido, was involved in the
production of A. flavidus and A. manglesii from seed in the late 1960's. A neighbor
of Mr. Hutchinson, Mr. Fred Meyer, purchased what he considered the best selections
from these seedlings to divide and plant out for a cut flower field, from which
he was able to produce several thousand cut stems for sale by 1975. Mr. Meyer
was also interested in several other species of Anigozanthos and by 1979 was
having his best selections of A. rufus and A. pulcherrimus propagated by Oglesby
Tissue Culture Lab. Shortly after this time Mr. Meyer introduced me to Kangaroo
Paws when I first visited one of his production fields. Later he supplied A.
pulcherrimus plants to me for a cut flower field in Santa Barbara. With his
interest in Kangaroo Paws it was only natural that he would travel to Western
Australia, bringing back with him numerous hybrids, including the first Bush
Gems to be cultivated in the US. Some of theses hybrid Kangaroo Paws have also
made their way into the nursery trade here. Several hybrids that he brought
back were released for sale at the Huntington Gardens annual plant sale in 1985,
including a very attractive A. pulcherrimus x flavidus. Mr. Meyer is also responsible
for the release of a very good tall pink selection of A. flavidus which has
erroneously gone under the name of A. 'Pink Joey' in the California nursery
trade. The true A, 'Pink Joey' is a dwarf from of A. flavidus that only more
recently was introduced into the United States and is in the Australian Nursery
Trade. At San Marcos Growers we are currently producing 6 different Kangaroo
Paws and are working on introducing several more later in 1991 (We list 15
in our 2006 catalog). We are grateful to Mr. Fred Meyer for the help that
he as given us in this venture and for the plants that he has brought into cultivation.
Many other nurseries have had an interest and have introduced Kangaroo Paws
into the trade as well. M. Nevin Smith of Wintergreen Nursery has grown more
species than any other nursery I have contacted. He currently has in production
A. bicolor, A. flavidus, A. humilis, A. rufus, and A. viridis. Daryll Combs,
of Daryll's Exotic Plants, in Carpinteria has propagated the Hopper Hybrids
and several selections of A. flavidus by division and is currently offering
them for sale. El Modeno Gardens Nursery was the first nursery in California
to import the Bush Gem hybrids and continue to do so at this time. The Nurseryman's
Exchange began marketing the University Series as a florist crop late in 1990.
The USDA began a project in 1983 on new Anigozanthos hybrids and research on
their cultivation. This project is taking place at the USDA Agricultural Research
Service, Florist and Nursery Crops Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland.
Cultivation Of Kangaroo Paws
The culture and care for many of the Kangaroo Paws is fairly easy if a few
of their basic requirements are met. Merv Turner, the hybridizer responsible
for the Bush Gem series wrote an article in the August 1986 publication of the
Australian publication Gardenscene. He set down the following 5 rules for the
cultivation of Kangaroo Paws.
- Plant in a sunny and open position in the garden. If in a frosty area,
plant under eaves on the south side of the house or under a high tree canopy.
- Provide these plants with excellent drainage.
- In summer dry climates provide these plants with regular water (providing
the drainage is good) to keep plants evergreen.
- Fertilize, but not heavily, and keep Phosphorus on the low side.
- Annual clean up. After the flowering period remove the old leaves down to
as low as possible. Fans only flower once and need to be cleaned out at the
end of a season. Care should be exercised that the new emerging fans are not
Although plants can be established at any time of the year, it is best to plant
during the cooler months: either late in the fall or in early spring. If one
is planting in a location where medium frosts are expected, protect plants with
mulch or wait until spring to plant. A sunny position in the garden is generally
best although many of the species and hybrids will grow and bloom in an open
light shade. If the location suffers from hard frost, plant in a sunny spot
under eaves or under the protection of a tree canopy. Kangaroo Paws do best
in, and in fact some will tolerate only well drained soils. A. flavidus, the
most common species in cultivation in the US, and parent to most of the common
hybrids, tolerates heavier soils than the others, but still responds to more
favorable conditions. It is reported that A. manglesii and rufus also will take
heavier soils and that all three tolerate seaside conditions.
Summer irrigation seems to shorten the life span of Kangaroo Paws, for
all species except A. flavidus, yet many of the hybrids will look best if given
ample water until the flowering period is over in late summer. Many of the species
come from areas of prolonged summer drought and will tolerate similar conditions
in cultivation; these species tend to be summer dormant and are easily rotted
if given water once in dormancy. For the best production of flowers the cut
flower industry in Australia has been advised by their Agricultural Department
to drip irrigate on sandy soils daily during the summer. A fertilizer can be
supplied through irrigation water. In California, cut flower growers keep stands
evenly moist until flowering has finished in fall. In the landscape Kangaroo
Paws can be irrigated in a different manner. A. flavidus, A. humilis, A. rufus,
A. manglesii and A. pulcherrimus are all species that grow well in dry summer
climates. Many of the better hybrids have one or both of these plants as parents
and likewise can be treated in a similar manner. These plants can be grown with
other Mediterranean climate plants in a dry, or infrequently irrigated garden.
It is still advisable to use drip irrigation when irrigation is performed, as
this lessens susceptibility to disease.
Flower initiation and bloom quality is best with healthy well irrigated plants.
The Western Australian Department of Agriculture has noted that irrigated plants
tend to flower on the average 1 month earlier than native stands. Flowering
time can also be dependent on the planting time and method of propagation. Plants
propagated from seed may take several years to flower where as division propagated
plants will flower the first season. Plants propagated by tissue culture often
will initiate flowering 6 months after planting the first year and will flower
at the normal time the following season.
Cultivation of Kangaroo Paws
By far the most common and damaging problem involved in the cultivation of Kangaroo
Paws is the dreaded Ink Spot Disease or Ink Disease as it is often referred
to. It is thought to be the fungus Alternaria alternata. Ink Disease causes
the blackening of the leaves and flower stems starting close to the leaf tip
and progressing down to the rhizome. For some plants such as A. flavidus the
disease appears to cause only cosmetic problems. It can be fatal to species
such as A. manglesii and A. pulcherrimus. Prevention of Ink Disease is difficult
since this fungi has air borne spores which are spread worldwide but by giving
ample spacing for good air flow, the chance of infection can be reduced. Certain
nutrient deficiencies, especially Calcium and Potassium can increase a plant's
susceptibility and physical damage to the leaves caused by human contact, frosts
or by pests such as snails and slugs can increase the chance of infection. Heavy
soils, humid conditions or heavy shade can also make plants more susceptible
to this disease. It should be noted that many of theses causal agents can produce
symptoms that both resemble and enhance the disease. If a blackening of the
stem is noticed, look at it carefully to see if the pitting caused goes all
the way through the leaf. Watch for the blackening to spread down the stem and
rogue out badly infested plants. Several fungicides have been suggested to control
Kangaroo Paws can be affected by a number of other
diseases, including a rust fungus on the leaves and root and stem diseases such
as Phytophthora , Pythium and Fusarium. Plants are more susceptible to these diseases
when under stress. Use of certain fungicides may control these diseases.
The most important animal pest to keep off of Kangaroo Paws is the European
Brown Garden Snail. Besides eating leaf and flower parts, this snail can make
plants more susceptible to disease. Aphids can become a problem in spring and
fall but are easily controlled by washing them off the foliage or by the use
of soaps or insecticides.
Indications of Nutrient Deficiencies
- Nitrogen - Plants produce pale green leaves; few fans are produced.
- Phosphorus (rare) - The older leaves of a plant develop an orange-yellow
color and die back. Phosphorus toxicity is more common (especially evident
in A. pulcherrimus and Macropedia) ; it appears like Ink Disease with blackened
tips that gradually progress down the leaf blade.
- Potassium - The deficiency symptoms appear on the oldest leaves.
The tips die and may be accompanied by brown spots on the outer half of the
leaf. Plants are poorly anchored and topple when in flower.
- Magnesium - Plants develop a blue black discoloration on the upper
half of the older leaves which progressively works its way down, creating
a mass of dead leaves.
Propagation Of Kangaroo Paws
There are three standard methods of propagation for the production of Kangaroo
Paws. The oldest and sometimes most simple propagation method of some species
is from seed. For some, division propagation is suitable, especially for the
A. flavidus varieties and hybrids. More recently, micro-propagation (tissue
culture) is becoming a preferred method of propagation for many of the new hybrids
as it allows for the rapid multiplication of plants and it is suitable for some
members of the genus which are difficult to divide and, or, germinate. These
three methods are briefly described below.
Seed should be harvested in summer after the fruit has dried. It is best to
germinate straight after harvest but seed viability does remain good for several
years. Sow seed into a sandy mix and cover with coarse sand. Germination should
occur in 15-40 days. Only A. flavidus, A. humilis, A. manglesii, and A. viridis
germinate reliably without some pre-treatment and of these only A. flavidus
has a relatively high rate of germination. Other species do not germinate dependably
without pre-treatment. Two recommended methods of pre-treatment are:
- Hot water - Place seeds in vials in a constant temperature water bath 130
-140º F for 1-2 hours (increase % for all but A. flavidus.
- Refrigeration - Store seeds in moist peat moss 2-3 weeks in a refrigerator
prior to sowing.
After germination, care should be taken as seedlings are susceptible to damping
off and should be sprayed with a suitable fungicide. Alternatively, sow sparsely,
provide good air circulation, water in the late morning so foliage will dry
rapidly and plant out seedlings when young.
Division can be done either in the fall after flowering or in the early spring.
Although fall is recommended in many Australian texts, we have found that divisions
of A. flavidus and its hybrids do best in early spring. Split rhizomes with
a sharp knife and clean off all old foliage. Protect newly divided plants by
potting into a shaded location for at least several weeks so plants can recover
from being divided.
This has become one of the most promising methods of propagation for many plants
including Anigozanthos and Macropedia. Many of the new hybrids becoming available
have been propagated by tissue culture, both in Australia and by companies here
in the United States. The basis of tissue culture propagation is the isolation
and growing of a small portion of plant tissue in sterile controlled conditions
on a nutrient agar medium. Since there has been no contact with soil, disease,
or pests, tissue culture plants can be shipped relatively easily, even across
international borders. After the plants have arrived at their destination the
plants are lifted out and the agar is then washed off of the small plants in
tepid water prior to potting into cell trays or liners. A low level of hormone
application applied to those plants lacking root development has been shown
to result in a 95% or better survival and establishment rate. A soil mix of
50/50 peat to perlite is a suitable potting mix at this stage, with an optimum
pH of around 5.8. At this early stage, plants should not be allowed to dry out.
Use of intermittent mist in a greenhouse without cross drafts or the use of
an anti-transpirants is recommended as are periodic fungicidal drenches to prevent
damping off. After approximately 4 weeks plants should be sufficiently hardened
off to allow light levels and ventilation to be increased. At about 8 weeks
plants are ready to be planted into a 6 inch or 1 gallon container.
The Development Of Hybrid Kangaroo Paws In Australia
In the mid 1970's, Dr. Stephen Hopper began crossing different species of Anigozanthos
at the Western Australian Wildlife Research Centre in Wanneroo, WA. His primary
interest was not to produce plants for horticulture, but to study the phylogenetic
relationships between the different species. Some of these crosses turned out
to have horticultural value and were tissue cultured by Dr. Jenny McComb, of
Murdoch University. The came into cultivation in the US in the early 1980's
because of their value in the cut flower industry. Although some of these plants
trickled into the nursery trade early on, they only became widely available
by the efforts of Twyford Plant Laboratories in Santa Paula, CA. With the ability
to mass produce Anigozanthos through tissue culture, Hoppers three hybrids,
A. 'Red Cross', A. 'Dwarf Delight' and A. 'Regal Claw' were soon spread around
to many nurseries in southern California.
In the mid 1980's, work was being done on the hybridizing of Anigozanthos
for the horticultural industry. By this time there were quite a few Kangaroo
Paws on the market. An article in the July 1986 issue of Australian Horticulture
states that "Over the past 2 years or so, the market has been swamped by wave
upon wave of new Kangaroo Paws and more often than not, confusion has reigned
supreme." Keith Oliver, at Lakkari Native Plant Nursery was working on a breeding
program to produce good quality ornamental plants. He produced several hybrids
in the Australian plant market, including A. 'Early Spring', A. 'Big Red', A.
'Emerald Glow' and A. 'Harmony'. Of these I am only aware of A. 'Harmony' having
been reported cultivation in the US [Big Red is now in the US trade - RB/2003].
All of these plants showed hybrid vigor but unfortunately were still susceptible
to Ink Disease.
If the problems with Ink Disease could be dealt with, the Kangaroo Paws would
have greater potential in the cut flower and nursery industry. For this reason
plant breeder, Professor Merv Turner of Monbulk, Victoria embarked on a program
to cross different species and then test their susceptibility to Ink Disease.
He spent more than 10 years developing his hybrid Kangaroo Paws, first by careful
selection and breeding and then by exposing young plants to diseased stock.
The survivors were retained for breeding purposes and the weak were culled out.
When released March of 1986, they were the first hybrids to be bred for disease
resistance and were called the Bush Gems. These hybrids are recognizable for
the name "Bush" or "Gem" in their cultivar name.
Professor Turner continued work on his hybridizing program for only 2 years
after the initial release before he died. At the time of his death his plants
were being marketed by Biotech Plants Ltd., a joint venture between Bush Gems
Nursery, in Vitro Australis (a tissue culture laboratory operated by Angus Stuart)
and Biotech. For several years the breeding project suffered but recently Ngarie
Turner (Merv's wife) has finished cataloging and documenting the diverse collection
of mother stock available for future breeding; over the last 2 years further
hybrid crosses aiming at plants suited to the landscaping/flowering pot plant
market have been made. Through work with this breeding line and working on a
new program that will combine laboratory based procedures (mutation breeding,
embryo rescue, seed germination, tissue culture propagation and manipulation
of ploidy levels to restore fertility to sterile hybrids.) Biotech estimates
that they will be able to do in 2 years what took 7 or more years before.
El Modeno Gardens Nursery has been marketing Bush Gems to the nursery trade
for since 1998 and San Marcos Growers will begin production and marketing of
this line of plants for late summer and fall of 1991. Several of the Bush Gems
are protected by a non-propagation agreement and by International and US Patents
held by Biotech Plants LTD/ Biotech has also introduced plants called the University
Series, which were primarily the work of Angus Stuart. These plants are being
marketed by the Nurseryman's Exchange and are showing up in chain stores across
There are 11 species of Anigozanthos, all of which are endemic to the southwest
corner of Western Australia. Within the genus, there are two species groups
which are differentiated by the tendency of the inflorescence to branch or not.
The following list is separated into these two groups. It gives a general description
of each species and what hybrids can be attributed to it.
A. flavidus - Tall Kangaroo Paw
To 6 ft. tall and flowering in a range of colors from yellow, pink to red.
A. flavidus is the most common of all of the Kangaroo Paws in cultivation.
It is also the toughest; able to take wet conditions, heavier soils, full
sun to light shade and is resistant to disease. For this reason it is often
a parent of many of the better hybrids. Some very good selections such as
A. flavidus 'Red' and 'Pink' (misnamed 'Pink Joey' in the trade) are available
and the species has been used to create hybrids such as A. 'Red Cross', A.
'Regal Claw', A. 'Dwarf Delight', A. 'Bush Dawn', A. 'Bush Haze', A. 'Bush
Ruby', A. 'Bush Noon', A. 'Bush Ranger', A. 'Bush Nugget', A. 'Bush Glow',
and A. 'Bush Baby'.
A. pulcherrimus - Golden Kangaroo Paws
A very attractive species with brilliant golden yellow flowers on reddish
flower stems. Requires very good drainage and full sun. This species is very
susceptible to ink spot but is a good co-parent to A. flavidus in producing
showy hardy yellow strains. Among the earliest of the hybrid Kangaroo Paws
to enter the U.S. market was an exceptional plant which has not been given
a showy name; it simply goes by its parentage and is called Anigozanthos pulcherrimus
x flavidus. Other cultivars within this line include A. 'Harmony', A. 'Bush
Noon', A. 'Bush Dawn', and A. 'Bush Haze'.
A. onycis - Branched Cat's Paw
A low growing Kangaroo Paws that has only recently been described and is
virtually unknown in cultivation. The specific name onycis is from the Greek
word onyx which means claw and refers to the claw-like appearance of the open
flowers. The flowers can be red or yellow suffused with red and differs from
A. humilis by having a branched inflorescence. It is noted to be one of the
most floriferous species in the wild, which has resulted in its inclusion
in the hybridizing efforts that created such notable plants as A. 'Dwarf Delight'
and A. 'Bush Magic'.
A. rufus - Red Kangaroo Paw - A showy species with deep red flowers.
A. rufus tolerates moderate frosts and a wider range of soils than other Kangaroo
Paws. Plants of this species have been cultivated in California, where it
has grown beautifully but proved to be been short lived. Its susceptibility
to Ink Disease and its attractiveness to snails has been noted in Australia;
this has been dealt with by crossing with A. flavidus, producing notable hybrids,
such as A. 'Red Cross', A. 'Bush Ruby' and A. 'Bush Sunset'.
A. bicolor - Little Kangaroo Paw
Similar to A. manglesii but with smaller stature and flowers. Tolerates winter
wet moisture if drainage is adequate. This species can be severely damaged
by frost. It has been used to create A. 'Emerald Gem', A. 'Bush Opal' and
A. 'Bush Nugget'.
A species not in cultivation in the U.S. and was considered up until 20 years
ago a subspecies of bicolor (A. bicolor var. minor). As this species is even
smaller than the Little Kangaroo Paw (A. bicolor), it is mostly suited to
the rock garden. It reportedly has a propensity to flower and can be a very
A. humilis - Cat's Paw
An attractive, small Kangaroo Paw, growing yellow to orange. Although it has
proven to be short lived in cultivation, A. humilis has been an essential
ingredient in the Bush Gem plants, 'Bush Nugget', 'Bush Gold', 'Bush Glow'
and 'Bush Flame'.
A very attractive small red flowering plant which has close ties to A. humilis.
It has proven difficult to propagate and grow, which has led to its absence
A. manglesii - Red and Green Kangaroo Paw
This spectacular plant is the floral emblem of Western Australia. The combination
of red hairs that clothe the stems and flower bases with the green perianth
and reflexed petals makes for a slightly unreal effect. It is certainly worth
cultivating even given the cultural problems one may experience. Although
susceptible to the dreaded Ink Disease, this plant's life span can be increased
by good cultural practices such as good drainage, good air circulation, drip
irrigation (as opposed to overhead), snail and slug control, and clump division
every 2-3 years. Even so, it is rare to find clumps of this plant more that
a year or two old. A. manglesii is a parent to A. 'Bush Emerald' and A. 'Emerald
A. preissii - Albany's Cat's Paw
This Kangaroo Paw has the largest individual flowers of the genus, with the
orange to red flowers held above the foliage in an unbranched inflorescence.
Although more tolerant of wetter soils than most other Kangaroo Paws and listed
as long lived in the wild, A. preissii is listed as difficult to maintain in
cultivation. Its slender upright flower stems, with the flowers clustered
toward the top has made it a good parent for the cut flower variety A. 'Regal
A. viridis - Green Kangaroo Paw
A small, emerald-green flowering Kangaroo Paw with fine deep green leaves.
This Kangaroo Paw comes from an area that can very wet in the winter and so
is less particular about soil drainage. It has been used in hybridizing work
to create A. 'Bush Magic' and A. 'Bush Emerald'.
Hybrids Available in the United States (in 1991)
A. 'Dwarf Delight'
A cross between A. onycis and A. flavidus with a multiple branching inflorescence,
2-3 ft. tall. It bears red flower buds, which turn to orange and apricot as
the flower opens. A strong, long -blooming hybrid. This is the earliest of
the Kangaroo Paws to bloom and it continues well into the summer. A. 'Dwarf
Delight' has pollen that is not completely sterile and therefore, has potential
in future breeding.
A. 'Red Cross' - A vigorous hybrid between A. rufus and A. flavidus,
has spectacular, tall (4-5 ft.), multi-branched stems with rich burgundy coloration
on both flowers and stems. The flowers open to reveal a green interior. A
good strong grower, it blooms a little later than A. 'Dwarf Delight' and continues
on into late summer.
A 'Regal Claw'
A very attractive, tall hybrid between A. preissii and A. flavidus with
thin olive green leaves and erect clusters of large, double-headed, flowers.
It is one of the few inter-specific hybrids to have a high pollen fertility,
making it possible to use this plant for further breeding.
A. 'Bush Baby'
A small hybrid between A. humilis and A. flavidus, it grows to 18 in. tall
and has branched flower stems holding pale orange flowers that are tinged
burgundy at the tips. A good container or rock garden plant which holds flower
A. 'Bush Emerald'
A striking hybrid between A. manglesii and A. viridis with 2 ft. unbranched
red stems and emerald green flowers. The foliage of this plant is a grey-green
color. An early blooming hybrid.
A. 'Bush Dawn'
A tall upright hybrid between A. pulcherrimus and A. flavidus with bright
yellow flowers tinted green. A good cut flowering plant with a long bloom
A. 'Bush Glow'
A compact flowering and branching hybrid between A. humilis and A. flavidus
with double ranked golden flowers with red bases along a bronzy-red stem.
A. 'Bush Nugget'
A strong growing polyploid with a more complex lineage than most. This
plant is a cross between A. humilis x flavidus x humilis x bicolor. It's 2-3
ft. red flower stems are branched and have yellow flowers. Flowering commences
in early spring and continues through summer.
A. 'Bush Ranger' (PP6,478)
An outstanding hybrid between A. humilis and A. flavidus with bright red flowers
on branched 18 in. stems. One of the most popular of the Bush Gems.